How to Incorporate Language Form, Function, and Structure in the SIOP Model Lessons
The paper looks at the current practice of CBI (Content-Based Instruction) and the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model as dominant methodological approaches of teaching a foreign or second language (FL/SL) and proposes some useful teaching strategies for the development of L2 skills not only in the public school system of the USA but for similar teaching environments in other countries where English is a medium of instruction of at least a few content subjects. The paper specifically addresses the difficulties many in-service and novice teachers experience during the SIOP lesson planning to come up with meaningful language teaching objectives in order to facilitate learning of both content and all four basic language skills such as reading, writing, listening, and speaking (Bautista & Castañeda, 2011, Bigelow & Ranney, 2005, among others). The main proposal of the paper on how to advance these skills is informed by the best practices of teaching and learning that follow English Language Development (ELD) standards of certain states and International TESOL standards. With these guiding documents and teaching principles drawn from a variety of reputable sources, the paper offers some hands-on strategies and teaching scenarios that could potentially enhance the focus on linguistic form, function, and structure during content lessons to facilitate L2 learning, and this focus includes word decomposition skills that are instrumental in vocabulary learning and complex syntactic structures such as passives during teaching Social Studies and Math lessons. The paper will be useful for both in-service teachers and teacher candidates who are preparing to deliver sheltered courses of various subjects in schools such as Math, Science, Social Studies, Language Arts, and so on. The paper also touches on the division of labor between content teachers and ELS professionals on how they need to collaborate to be able to better serve L2 learners at the various stages of L2 skill development.