## Anticipated Date of Graduation

Summer 2022

## Document Type

Thesis

## Degree Name

Master of Science in Mathematical Sciences

## Department

Mathematical Sciences

## First Advisor

Douglas Darbro

## Abstract

The state of Ohio requires high school students to meet course credit and testing requirements in order to graduate. The purpose of standardized testing is to ensure all students are being taught and learning the same standards at the same proficient level. An algebra teacher who is already teaching the Ohio algebra standards would assume that students would be successful on the algebra 1 EOC exam. When students are not successful, it becomes necessary to determine where instruction has failed, or what interventions must be used to supplement learning to achieve success. Because these are high-stakes tests, being able to determine before instruction which students need more attention and supplementing that instruction from the start can be much more beneficial. One goal of this study was to use data that can be easily accessed to determine which students are more likely to need additional support to improve student achievement. The other main purpose was to determine the need to include reading intervention strategies, content specific reading, working on interpreting word problems, and putting a focus on vocabulary within our lessons will help to improve reading strategies and comprehension.

Linear regression techniques were used to determine that a Star instructional reading level reliably predicts scores for the algebra 1 EOC exam. Combined with other predictors, multiple regression analysis compiled an equation to predict algebra 1 EOC scores. A statistically reliable model included Star instructional reading level, eighth-grade course grade and math EOC score, and school district to predict the algebra 1 EOC score.

Logistic regression methods were used to create a model to predict success on the algebra 1 EOC exam. Success is defined as a score of 684 or higher on the Ohio algebra 1 EOC. The full model was statistically significant with all predictors, but the reduced model was a better fit with the data. The backward step regression reduced the model to four predictors: 8^{th} grade English course grade and EOC, math EOC, and gender. Again, as predicted reading and comprehension skills are predictive of success on the algebra 1 EOC exam.

The results confirmed that reading and comprehension skills are necessary, foundational skills needed to be successful in algebra. The researchers determined formulas to be used to help predict scores on the algebra 1 EOC or predict success on the algebra 1 EOC. Using these formulas, students can be identified before starting algebra to better supplement instruction and provide strategies to support struggling readers. Ultimately if students are below a certain reading level additional reading support could be provided in addition to differentiations in the algebra course. The results imply that there is an undeniable literacy component to the algebra 1 EOC exam.

## Recommended Citation

Klein, Joshua and Lambert, Renee, "Reading Ability and Success in Algebra 1: Using Reading Scores and Regression to Predict Success on the Ohio Algebra 1 EOC" (2022). *Master of Science in Mathematics*. 31.

https://digitalcommons.shawnee.edu/math_etd/31